Decline of the Incline

Robert Gillham, a 24-year-old engineer from New York, reformed Kansas City's transportation system
Robert Gillham
Cable car
Cable car

October 13, 1913: The last operating cable car in Kansas City completed its final trip along 12th Street, ending thirty years of cable car dominance in the city’s public transportation.

In the late 1870s, Kansas City hosted a rapidly growing population and a vibrant economy based on the cattle trade, but maneuvering through town remained a problem. Horse or mule-drawn car rides over hilly, unpaved streets entailed an unsightly and decidedly putrid experience.

When Robert Gillham, a 24-year-old engineer from New York, arrived in Kansas City in 1878, he wanted to reform its transportation system. He persuaded the business leadership to build a cable car system that stretched along 9th Street from the Union Depot railway terminal, located in the West Bottoms, up the steep incline to Quality Hill.

Kansas City became just the third city in the United States to have cable cars. Outdoing himself just three years later, Gillham achieved an engineering feat by drilling a cable-car tunnel along 8th Street directly through a steep bluff to reach downtown Kansas City. With continuous expansion, the system remained the third largest in the country behind San Francisco and Chicago.

In the early twentieth century, electric streetcars proved to be more energy efficient, required less maintenance, and were easier to construct than cable cars. Cable cars gradually disappeared from the landscape of Kansas City and most of the United States. Despite the advantages of electric streetcars, another innovation, the automobile, gradually replaced them. By the 1920s Kansas City embraced automobiles as the favorite method of transportation. Expansions of roadways for the Country Club Plaza and southward suburban development under the leadership of J.C. Nichols strongly favored the use of private vehicles or buses. Accordingly, the last electric streetcars wound through Kansas City in the 1950s, and today greater Kansas City possesses more freeway miles per capita than any other metropolitan area in America.

 

Read full biographical sketches about key developers in Kansas City, prepared by the Missouri Valley Special Collections:

 

Read about the history of Kansas City buildings relating to the cable cars, prepared by the Missouri Valley Special Collections:

 

View images of streetcars from the Missouri Valley Special Collections:

 

Check out the following books about streetcars in Kansas City:

 

Continue your own research on the history of public transportation in Kansas City using the following archival resources contained in the Missouri Valley Special Collections:

 

References:

Rick Montgomery & Shirl Kasper, Kansas City: An American Story (Kansas City, MO: Kansas City Star Books, 1999), 10-11, 28-36, 158.

Robert Livingston Nicholson, "Cable Cars in Kansas City," Manuscript, Missouri Valley Special Collections, 1969.

Monroe Dodd, A Splendid Ride: The Streetcars of Kansas City, 1870-1957 (Kansas City, MO: Kansas City Star Books, 2002).

Janice Lee, "Biography of Robert Gillham, Rapid Transit Pioneer," Missouri Valley Special Collections, Kansas City Public Library, Kansas City, Missouri.

William S. Worley, J.C. Nichols and the Shaping of Kansas City: Innovation in Planned Residential Communities (Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1990), 248.

About the Author

Dr. Jason Roe is a digital history specialist and editor for the Library’s digitization and encyclopedia website project, Civil War on the Western Border: The Missouri-Kansas Conflict, 1854-1865. He earned a doctorate in American history from the University of Kansas in May 2012 and is the author of the Library’s popular “This Week in Kansas City History” column. For assistance with general local history questions, please contact the Missouri Valley Special Collections.
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