Katz in the Cradle
Isaac "Ike" Katz, who would go on to found the Katz Drug Co. in Kansas City and become a pioneer in the modern pharmacy business, was born in the town of Husiatin in western Ukraine (then a part of Russia) on March 8, 1879. Ike Katz brought customers into his drug stores with a unique business model, where customers could fill prescriptions, shop for groceries, buy appliances, and even purchase exotic pets such as monkeys or baby alligators; all at cut-rate prices. At its peak in the 1950s and 1960s, the company boasted 65 retail locations spread across seven states.
Katz emigrated from Ukraine in 1892 with his family to St. Paul, Minnesota, at the age of 13. The family struggled to make ends meet in their new home, making it necessary for Ike to drop out of school while still a teenager to earn a living. He sold newspapers on the Great Northern railroad, where he struggled to overcome a foot injury sustained in a school baseball game. In addition to newspapers, Katz sold souvenirs, postcards, blankets, and straw mats to weary passengers. When the journeys were over, Katz collected the discarded mats and resold them to new customers. He gleaned key principles of business management from these experiences, especially the value of salesmanship and the importance of carrying merchandise that appealed to his customers' desires.
In his early 20s, Katz left the railroads, and considered using his $300 in savings for a surgery in Chicago to repair his debilitating foot injury. As fate turned out, the surgeon was out of town, but Katz luckily met his future wife, Minnie Baranov. He used his money for the marriage, and never did have a foot surgery. (His foot continued to bother him for the rest of his life.) On the advice of a friend, named Charley Kieferstein, Katz came to Kansas City to search for a new line of work. He opened a fruit stand on Union Avenue in the West Bottoms and made a successful living. Ike's younger brother, Mike Katz, joined him and opened his own fruit stand nearby.
Two major events, both completely out of the Katz brothers' control, led them almost by accident into the drug business. First, in 1914, the new Union Station opened south of downtown, replacing the old Union Depot in the West Bottoms. The city's railroad traffic and related commerce flowed to the new location. The Katz brothers left the West Bottoms and jointly opened two cigar stores nearer to Union Station. One was in the Argyle Building at 12th and McGee, and the other was at 8th and Grand. For three years, the brothers worked 19-hour days and struggled to keep their business afloat.
The second event pushed the Katz brothers into converting their cigar store in the Argyle building into a drug store. The United States entered World War I in 1917. The federal government placed the economy on a wartime footing, which included the mandated 6 p.m. closing of all stores – except drug stores. To keep his shop open in the evening, Katz immediately located and hired a pharmacist and a stocked small supply of medicines. Purely by coincidence, the Argyle building housed several doctors' offices. Their patients found it convenient to fill their prescriptions at the new Katz drug store.
Perhaps more so than pharmaceuticals, however, the Katz store brought in new customers through the clever marketing and pricing of cigarettes, which had become more expensive due in part to the imposition of a wartime tax. Fortunately, Ike had purchased a large supply of cigarettes shortly before prices rose. Katz Drug could now sell these cheaper than its competitors. Ike's clever sense of marketing came into play when he realized that customers resented paying the new tax on cigarettes, so he used his price advantage to proclaim, "Katz pays the tax," and sell the merchandise at pre-tax price levels.
During the 1920s, the Katz Drug Co. expanded into a chain of stores that served as a model for the modern drug store. Advertising campaigns, a wide variety of novelty merchandise and staple goods, and low prices kept customers coming through the doors. Besides filling prescriptions, customers could stock up on groceries and household supplies, and buy more exotic items, including pet alligators and monkeys.
The business model made the Katz Drug Co. one of the most profitable of its type in the world. In 1934, in the midst of the Great Depression, the Katz brothers opened their first building outside the central business district, at Main Street and Westport Road. The building was the first major commission for architect Clarence Kivett (a nephew of Ike and Mike), and when it opened it was the largest drug store in the world at 20,000 square feet. The store hosted 29 cash registers, parking assistance, air conditioning, and the company's trademark sign with a large black cat wearing a bowtie. The logo was of course a play on the name Katz. (Although the building is currently empty, its unique art deco clock tower is still a familiar sight in Westport today.)
In the 1950s, Ike's son, Earl, took over the management of the business. The company's sales volume reached $100 million annually by 1971, when it merged with Skaggs Drug Cos. In 1985, Skaggs merged with American Drug Stores, and the stores were re-flagged with the name Osco. Finally, in 2006, CVS/pharmacy bought out Osco and closed the historic store at Main Street and Westport Road. Today that building remains vacant, but it has been placed on the Kansas City Register of Historic Places, and there are plans to reopen it as a bakery and cafe to save the building's heritage and revitalize it for the 21st century. Due to an array of complicating factors, however, the building's future is still uncertain.
Although the Katz brand has disappeared, Ike Katz left his mark on Kansas City history. Ike was generous through the years to many people and organizations. Among the beneficiaries of his generosity were the Menorah hospital, the Keneseth Israel Beth Sholom Synagogue, the Kansas City Art Institute, and the Kansas City Philharmonic. In exchange for a generous donation to the latter, Ike Katz received an annual "Katz concert" put on by the orchestra for his family, employees, and friends. Though not exactly spontaneous generosity, Ike also paid a $100,000 ransom in 1929 to rescue his brother Mike from kidnappers. On a smaller level of giving, friends and casual acquaintances long remembered the free merchandise samples that Ike Katz famously handed out from the custom-made large pockets in his suits.
His greatest contributions, however, came from his entrepreneurship in the pharmacy business. Katz pioneered the business model combining pharmacy, grocery, and general store services that is still in use by the major drug store chains. In the years since 1956, when he died at the age of 77, this accomplishment has not diminished.
Listen to Steve Katz speak about his grandfather, Isaac Katz, in a recording of a presentation at the Kansas City Public Library, June 21, 2009.
Read a full biographical sketch of Issac Katz, prepared for the Missouri Valley Special Collections, The Kansas City Public Library:
- Biography of Isaac Katz (1879-1956), Owner of Katz Drug Stores, by Daniel Coleman.
- Biography of Clarence Kivett (1905-1996), Architect, by Susan Jezak Ford; Kivett was the nephew of Ike and Mike Katz.
- Boley Building Profile, by Ann McFerrin; the building was the headquarters of the Katz Drug Company.
View images relating to Issac Katz and the Katz Drug Stores that are a part of the Missouri Valley Special Collections:
- Postcard of 12th Street, West from McGee; Katz Drug store is visible, accompanied by a brief historical article.
- Katz Drugstore at 10th and Minnesota, 1950.
- Katz Drugstore at 10th and Minnesota, alternate view, 1950.
- Katz Drugstore Interior; at Linwood and Troost, 1941.
- Katz Drugstore opening ceremony; following a remodeling of the store at Linwood and Troost, 1961.
- Katz Drugstore at 8th and Grand, 1920.
- 12th Street near Walnut Street; 1925, Katz Drug Store at right.
- Argyle Building at 12th and McGee; 1935, Katz Drug Store visible on first level.
- Residence of Isaac Katz; view from northwest side.
- Residence of Isaac Katz; looking north over pool and hills.
- Residence of Isaac Katz; pool and bridge.
- Residence of Isaac Katz; swimming pool.
- Residence of Isaac Katz; tea house in green garden.
- Grand Avenue and 8th Street; Katz store in the background, 1950.
- Guadalupe Center float in the Community Fund Parade; Katz store in the background, 1942.
- Katz Officials at Luncheon, 1941.
- Phillips Hotel; Katz Drug Store was a first floor tenant, 1950.
- Truman Corners Shopping Center; included a Katz Drug Store, 1960.
Check out the following books and articles about Isaac Katz and the Katz Drug Stores, held by the Kansas City Public Library:
- Leaders in Our Town, by Dick Fowler, 1952; contains a biography of Isaac Katz, pp. 237-240.
- "Ike Katz: An Extrovert with Great Humility," in The Kansas City Star, February 18, 2007; personal remembrances of Ike Katz by Steve Katz, Ike's grandson.
- "Search for Their Roots Leads Family to Ukraine," by Ruth Baum Bigus, in The Kansas City Star, November 13, 1999; article details the travels of Steve Katz and family members to uncover their family history.
- "Historic Katz Drug Store Could Get a New Life," by Kevin Collison, in The Kansas City Star, August 14, 2009; discusses the future of the Katz Drug store on Main Street, which has been placed on the Kansas City Register of Historic Places.
Continue researching Isaac Katz using archival materials from the Missouri Valley Special Collections:
- Vertical File: Katz Drug Store.
- Microfilm: Kansas City Star & Times Selected Subjects, Roll 13; "Ike and Mike Katz."
- "May We Present Isaac Katz," Future, March 15, 1935.
Daniel Coleman, "Biography of Isaac Katz (1879-1956), Owner of Katz Drug Stores," Missouri Valley Special Collections, Kansas City Public Library, 2007.
Dick Fowler, Leaders in Our Town (Kansas City, MO: Burd & Fletcher, 1952), 237-240.
Ruth Baum Bigus, "Search for Their Roots Leads Family to Ukraine," The Kansas City Star, November 13, 1999.
Steve Katz, "Ike Katz: An Extrovert with Great Humility," The Kansas City Star, February 18, 2007.
Matt Campbell, "Katz Clock Tower Marks its 60th Year," The Kansas City Star, December 15, 1994.
Joyce Smith, "Is Time Running Out for Famous Building," The Kansas City Star, July 28, 2006.
About the Author
|Dr. Jason Roe is a digital history specialist and editor for the Library’s digitization and encyclopedia website project, Civil War on the Western Border: The Missouri-Kansas Conflict, 1854-1865. He earned a doctorate in American history from the University of Kansas in May 2012 and is the author of the Library’s popular “This Week in Kansas City History” column. For assistance with general local history questions, please contact the Missouri Valley Special Collections.|